## Saturday, September 8, 2012

## Monday, June 7, 2010

### Self Gravitation Bio:Metabolic energy versus intrinsic gravitational energy

**I.R.Bhattacharjee**

Institute for Intrinsic Gravitation Biology (i3GB)

**Self Gravitation Bio:**

**Internal energy system in living mass:**

**Metabolic energy versus intrinsic gravitational energy:**

The

**biomass**is one of the most**complex energy systems**. Basically it possesses a kind of**duel energy**- gravitational and metabolic. Gravitational field pulls all intrinsic mass together towards its dynamic geometric centre. It is a directional energy and can be termed as if working in a singular energy system. Metabolic energy is a multidimensional energy- works against gravitational energy as plural energy system.When contacting surfaces move relative to each other or internal friction (motion-resisting force between the surfaces of the particles) works, the friction converts kinetic energy into thermal energy, or heat, a vital process require for thermogenesis in living organisms.

Body surface area (BSA):

**How weight could be parameter for calculating surface area?**

In physiology and medicine, for many clinical purposes, the

**body surface area (BSA)**is a better indicator of**metabolic mass**. Various calculations have been published to arrive at the BSA without direct measurement, starting in 1916 with the Dubois & Dubois formula, Boyd's Formula,1935, Gehan EA and George SL in 1970 for cancer chemotherapy, Haycock GB, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH formula (in children) 1978, Mosteller RD formula published in 1987, National Cancer Institute formula-**all are based on weight and height**. The amount of fluids to be administered through human intra-venous is determined through calculation of body surface area (BSA).As per Mosteller formula,

"Normal" BSA is generally taken to be 1.7 m²: Average for men being 1.9; women-1.6; 9 years child-1.07;10 years child-1.14; 12-13 years child-1.33; neonate- 0.25; 2 year old child- 0.5 m2 respectively.

**BSA in m2 = √weight (kg) X height (cm)/3600**."Normal" BSA is generally taken to be 1.7 m²: Average for men being 1.9; women-1.6; 9 years child-1.07;10 years child-1.14; 12-13 years child-1.33; neonate- 0.25; 2 year old child- 0.5 m2 respectively.

**As weight (mass or gravitational force) cannot be a component of ‘area’**, we assume that part of the calculation is embraced considering contribution of mass in the**non-accelerated reference frame**that move in non-aligned or in opposite direction with respect to accelerated frame of self gravitating biomass and inertial reference frame. Therefore calculation needs re-examination in the light of**self gravitation bio**.{Ref: Mosteller RD. Simplified Calculation of Body Surface Area. N Engl J Med. 1987 Oct 22;317(17):1098. (letter);

DuBois D, DuBois EF. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Int Med 1916 17:863-71;

Haycock GB, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH. Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height weight formula validated in infants, children and adults. The Journal of Pediatrics 1978 (93):1:62-66.;

Gehan EA, George SL. Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970 54:225-35.;

Boyd E. The growth of the surface area of the human body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1935. (From: http://www.ispub.com/journals/IJA/Vol2N2/bsa.htm);.........}

DuBois D, DuBois EF. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Int Med 1916 17:863-71;

Haycock GB, Schwartz GJ, Wisotsky DH. Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A height weight formula validated in infants, children and adults. The Journal of Pediatrics 1978 (93):1:62-66.;

Gehan EA, George SL. Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep 1970 54:225-35.;

Boyd E. The growth of the surface area of the human body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1935. (From: http://www.ispub.com/journals/IJA/Vol2N2/bsa.htm);.........}

**Self Gravitation Bio: Energy versus Exergy system**

When any

**extraneous or ambient gravitational energy system**works on it or it is exposed to**external medium**, directional energy gets converted into multidirectional energy. At that state, it should be treated as**plural energy system**and better to term as gravitational**exergy**.**Exergy**is not considered to be a form of energy but a designation of the

**quality of energy**in mechanical engineering. Exergy of a system can be taken as the maximum work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium. Similarly biomass would experience a net force out of

**gravitational exergy**.

On the other hand, biomass possesses

The helmholtz energy is the part of

Gibbs energy is composed of helmholtz energy plus expansion energy.

Bound energy is the part of internal energy or caloric energy that cannot be converted into external energy. The bound or nucleus energy however, cannot typically be converted into either inward or outward energy.

Cogeneration energy is composed of external energy, caloric energy and electromagnetic energy within the biochemical cell.

**caloric energy**through various biochemical reactions, producing many**subforms of metabolic energy**. It can be considered as**internal**energy though it is inherently composed of**plural**energy system including helmholtz, gibbs and bound energy in addition to cogeneration energy.The helmholtz energy is the part of

**caloric energy**that could be converted into external energy.Gibbs energy is composed of helmholtz energy plus expansion energy.

Bound energy is the part of internal energy or caloric energy that cannot be converted into external energy. The bound or nucleus energy however, cannot typically be converted into either inward or outward energy.

Cogeneration energy is composed of external energy, caloric energy and electromagnetic energy within the biochemical cell.

Thus

**metabolic energy is a multidirectional plural energy**. For instance, food is a form of internal energy and cannot be entirely converted into muscle energy, which is a form of external energy.**Muscle working against intrinsic or extraneous gravitational energy, depend on the placement of muscle in the body. Cardiac muscle works primarily against intrinsic gravitational energy to pump in and pump out, whereas leg muscle work mainly against extrinsic gravitational energy. If step by step meticulous calculation is made on total energy balance of biomass in question, separating gravitational and metabolic energy, there may be two types of energy superimposed on one another- part of the directional forms of energy inward due to intrinsic gravitational energy and other due to outward metabolic energy.****The net force in the total system would be in equilibrium state of exergy.**

**Bioenergetics**during growth would be an unequal but opposite entity of self-gravity reinforced by extrinsic gravity.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR):

Metabolic energy is related to Mass. Why

**Mass**(measure of intrinsic gravitational force) is important?Due to inherent clumsy situation in energy balance in biomass, relationship between mass and metabolic energy of the living organism remains controversial for last 150 years.

Max Rubner (1880) reported that mammalian basal metabolic rate (BMR) was proportional to mass (M 2/3).

Max Kleiber (1932), supported by Brody (1945) modified proportionality to mass (M3/4) in

**organisms**ranging from**simple unicells to plants and endothermic vertebrates**. Warm blooded, cold blooded and unicellular animals fit on different curves. Kleiber’s famous**mouse-to-elephant curve**and**quarter-power scaling**is often regarded as ubiquitous in biology.Harris-Benedict equation of 1919 calculates total

**heat production at complete rest**based on**weight**, stature (height), and age, and with the difference in**basal metabolic rate (BMR)**for men and women being mainly due to differences in body weight.MD Mifflin and ST St Jeor in 1990 created new equation with +5 for males and −161 for female or Katch-McArdle formula based on

**lean**body mass in kilogram with woman whom, for example, has a body fat percentage of 30%, BMR would be 1262 kcal per day.To calculate daily calorie needs, this BMR value is multiplied by a factor with a value between 1.2 and 1.9, depending on the person's physical activity level (PAL).

**Basal metabolic rate**(

**molecule of Oxygen per hour**) at rest is proportional to

**intrinsic**gravitational energy, whereas energy expenditure due to physical activity (PAL) would be proportional to extrinsic gravitational energy.

{Ref: Harris J, Benedict F (1918). "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism". Proc Sci U S a 4 (12): 370–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.4.12.370. PMID 16576330.

Rubner, M. (1883) Zeitschrift fur Biologie 19, 536–562.; Kleiber, M. (1932) Hilgardia 6, 315–353.; Brody, S. (1945) Bioenergetics and Growth (Reinhold, New York)..........................}.

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